“Outcome-based Education(OBE) means focusing and organising a school’s entire programs and instructional efforts around the clearly defined outcomes we want all students to demonstrate when they leave school.” (Spady, 1993)
THE “ESSENCE” OF OBL
1. In OBL, what matters ultimately is not what is taught, but what is learned;
2. Teachers must set appropriate course intended learning outcomes, instead of teaching objectives;
3. Constructive alignment: What we teach, how we teach and how we assess ought to be aligned with the intended learning outcomes, such that they are fully consistent with each other;
4. The quality of teaching is to be judged by the quality of learning that takes place;
5. All OBL approaches take a criterion-based view of assessment and focus on what students can do with knowledge after a period of learning
CURRICULUM : Curriculum Development can be defined as the systematic planning of what is taught and learned in schools as reflected in courses of study and school programs.
Grundy(1987) defines curriculum as a programme of activities (by teachers and pupil) designed so that pupil will attain so far as possible certain educational and other schooling ends or activities.
A model is a format for curriculum design developed to meet unique needs, contexts, and/or purposes. In order to address these goals, curriculum developers design, rearrange one or more key curriculum components.
Hilda Taba was born in a small village in southeastern Estonia at a time when the country was in transition politically. Taba was introduced to Progressive education ideas at Tartu University by her philosophy professor in the period following the Russian Revolution, when John Dewey’s ideas about democracy and education were celebrated in Russia and eastern Europe.
In short, Taba advocated for a flexible model of curriculum renewal based on joint efforts of practicing teachers, educational administrators and researchers. Her curriculum model covers many of the critical topics, from aims and goals of education, the selection of the content, the process of organizing learning and school development, and evaluation at different levels.
Learn RE-learn UN-learn: The Backward Brain Bicycle
A quick clarification about this video: It took me 8 months to learn how to do this, but I was only picking up the bike and running to the end of the driveway and back every day. I wasn’t “ACTIVELY” trying to learn. Meaning, I wasn’t struggling and trying to make my brain learn. I simply got on the bike every day, tried to operate it to the end of the driveway, turned around and tried to operate it back.
The goal was to understand how my brain figured things out on its own, without trying to force it to. Many people have built bikes like this and figured it out in much less than 1 day by staying on the bike until they were able to master it.
I had no timelines, and was using this as an exploratory activity to learn how I learn.
Before describing what makes a ‘Theoretical Framework’ and a ‘Conceptual Framework’ so different when it comes to research, one needs to gain clarity as to what we exactly mean when we talk about a ‘Research Framework’.
A research framework is the particular perspective or point of view, in accordance to which a researcher conducts his research analysis. A researcher makes use of a research framework to guide him/her in exploring and interpreting his/her data and in finally arriving at desired results.
Once a researcher’s data is in order, a framework of a research is used to reflect back and check whether the derived results agree with the chosen framework or if there are any discrepancies or gaps.
Research : Introducing using interactive multimedia display (augmented reality art) in delivering information to art gallery’s visitors. This research will mainly focus on a case study of Galeri Seni Tuanku Nur Zahirah (GESTURZ), UiTM Shah Alam to prove students that art can educate through arts gallery engaged with the innovative pedagogy.
Researcher conducted the research investigations in two studies. For each study, researcher designed, and evaluated pre and post test an interactive multimedia display (augmented Reality Art) prototype for use in art gallery.
Learning theories are conceptual frameworks in which knowledge is absorbed, processed, and retained during learning. Cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences, as well as prior experience, all play a part in how understanding, or a worldview, is acquired or changed and knowledge and skills retained.
E-learning is a convenient term to cover a range of uses of technology for teaching and learning. However, some argue that ‘e-learning’ is either too general to be useful, or that all teaching now depends to some extent on the use of technology, so we should drop the ‘e-‘ and just focus on learning.